Merge Invisible Layers
"If we release the silicon mosquito from the silicon chip, it flies
off and we cannot find it again, it's very small, like dust." 1
- Hirofumi Miura, a professor of mechano-informatics at
the University of Tokyo
I walk around the city streets for days on end. I have come to see
the world in wire-frame, always from multiple points-of-view: from
plan, elevation, section and sometimes from a birds-eye perspective.
I calculate the number of polygons, the needed texture maps, and the
radiosity factors required to construct and animate any given scene.
I study the subtleties in light - its shimmering, almost
hallucinatory mosaic refracting off intersecting planes of concrete,
mirror, and glass, against the crush of urban landscape; amid the
splinters of a broken sky.
I reside in the branch-shaped housing sector down on Werhner von
Braun Boulevard. It's the one with the booleaned windows, the endless
bezier curves, the multiple light extrusions, and the numerous means
of escape. Some might call them entrances. Ramps like shoots,
criss-crossing warped staircases, balconies pried open with spines
extending out in all directions. It is a home, it is my home, of, and
to, pure information. A cathedral of light, if you will, of
prefabricated carbon-fiber and lightweight synthetic thermal resins;
equipped with interior liquid crystal displays screens and motion
sensors that respond via a bodynet to my ever shifting loci of
desires and needs; continuously morphing by means of brainwave
triggers into twisted algorithmic forms that are never in repose. It
is a writhing psychic vessel of my disembodied senses and multiple
hovering eyes. It is a taut mirror to both the inner and outer
My body is one and several. I change identity with a keystroke.
Morphing from male to female, and back again - I put a spell on you.
You download a virus. I download cyberfeminist cut-ups, as
information travels at one trillion bits per second through optical
fiber. Autonomous intelligence filters (bots) seek and replicate all
the electrons fit to transmit via the datamesh called the Internet.
My self-replicating agents return home like omnivorous Pac-Man's from
an ever expanding digital killing field with the desired bytes and
bits in tow. I have gone full-circle searching for some arcane piece
of information - a piece to complete the fractal puzzle. The
doubling, or interleaving of reality, is a squeamish electro-mechano
affair between the virtual and the real. I experience a split. I'm
looping the loop on a slippery thrill ride, incessantly riding on the
in-between. The psychic spin: my spirit whirls. That real-time
streaming of potentialities, which has thoroughly kicked butt, like a
schism break mechanism or gaussian blur. That old hat "line of
fright" has got me under its spell. Freeze frame. Instant replay.
Cutting and pasting. Dragging and clicking. Forever coding in the
margins. It's a feeding frenzy for virtual avatars. I sense that it's
somehow too late, that I preach to the scan-converted.
The Gap (Not The Store)
At the beginning of his authoritative work A History of
Civilizations, Fernand Braudel wrote that "Civilizations, vast or
otherwise, can always be located on a map...to discuss civilization
is to discuss space, land and its contours." 2 Now there is no map,
and any remaining geographical contours are significantly blurred or
have officially collapsed. Multinational corporations (some
significantly larger than many countries) have fabricated an
accelerated space based solely around the transformation and flow of
capital. Silently, the world has slipped out from under us as we
dreamt our televised dreams, our souls shanghaied by a culture of
greed that is adrift on a reality which has become severely
over-exposed. We must now confront a reality which has become
psychically overstuffed; a mad accumulation of reality which is
bifurcating between the real as we know it, and the teleschizoid
assemblages which we have yet to fully formulate.
To speak of, or to even attempt to visualize form now, one must
contemplate its antithesis. Meta-attributes have replaced physical
attributes: metaquery, metacontent and metaplace. Though the dream is
seemingly at hand, this electronic reality exists remotely - in the
netherworld of satellite links, communication servers, the Internet
and Intranets. We have, in effect, fallen outside of ourselves, as
the once hard distinction between remote and local stages become even
further dispersed, and the exposure intervals between time and space,
inside and outside, mind and body, imaginary and real are no longer
This current transitory condition floats on a heuristic logic of its
own making, as the real becomes thoroughly interleaved with the
artificial. We "surf" on the flows of a hyper-nothingness state;
hemophiliacs in search of some image clotting machine, careening
around the outer most edge of a slippery information vortex; like
junkies in need of a quick sensory fix. Finally, we have arrived at
the manifest destination: the eternal return-like a snake devouring
its own tale. In topology, this is equivalent to a self-intersection
on a non-orientable surface. A Klein bottle cannot be embedded in
three-space, but it can me immersed there.
2:14.37 AM. Any representation of reality is tantamount to the
ultimate user dungeon.
The virtual dimension has triggered a decisive cognitive rupture with
the very notion and relevance of the Newtonian conception of space.
It is a profoundly radicalized break. A break that in many respects
is analogous to the space Brunelleschi and others of the Quattrocento
opened up in the 15th century by developing the language of linear
perspective. Perspectival law fixed the viewer in one place.
Centuries later, perspective (a singular point of view) gave way to
Analytical Cubism (multiple points of view), as developed by Picasso
and Braque. Cubism was the first art movement that attempted to
synthesize the multi-dimensionality which characterized the new
scientific theories of relativity formulated by Einstein and Bohr.
With the development of real immersive environments, we have reached
a strange new plateau in the human project, as we rapidly transit
from analog to digital modalities. These are nonspaces of pure
simultaneity, absolute simulation, instability and instant electronic
transmission. All representations of the physical, if desired, can be
removed - no vanishing point and no horizon. The once stable laws of
time and space have been effectively rendered null and void; entropic
delirium slips across the curvatures of time. Space is no longer
something one moves through - space now moves through us.
In other words, in case you've had your sensor buried deep within the
bowels of the earth, we have gone virtual: the limits of the
physical realm have been eclipsed by the digital. Advanced
technologies have not only caught up with reality, they have
surpassed it. We are inhabitants of the ether: the constellations of
the visible world have merged with the screen. In a century immersed
in the magic of technological acceleration, the very scaffoldings of
perception have become transparent to our willful human gaze.
- The EyeDentification 2001 retinal scanning terminal from EyeDentify
recognizes an individual's retinal vascular pattern in less than five
seconds. 3 On May 20, 1996, Illinois Governor Jim Edgar announced
that the state had launched the nation's first retinal eye scanning
project to identify eligible welfare clients and prevent fraud. 4
- "No two voices are alike. With the advent of digital technology, the
human voice has become the ideal personal identification vehicle.
Accurate, low-cost, noninvasive and virtually effortless, speaker
identification is the new engine of biometrics". 5
- The Federal Aviation Administration will begin testing the use of a
full-body 360 degree holographic imaging system at a United States
airport. The system developed by Pacific Northwest, uses millimeter
waves to quickly generate a naked image of the scannee. Pacific
Northwest is hot at work on developing X-ray specs using the same
- The world's smallest guitar (about the size of a human cell) carved
out of crystalline silicon and no larger than a single cell -- has
been made at Cornell University to demonstrate a new technology that
could have a variety of uses in fiber optics, displays, sensors and
electronics. If plucked -- by an atomic force microscope, for example
-- the strings would resonate, but at inaudible frequencies. 6
- The Global Positioning System (GPS), consisting of twenty four
operational satellites in six sidereal orbital planes, encircles the
earth and can pin-point our precise physical whereabouts with
startling accuracy. Every square meter of the globe has been mapped
and digitized by high-altitude photography. "The last bit of Earth
unclaimed by any nation-state was eaten up in 1899. Ours is the first
century without terra incognita, without a frontier". 7
This progressive and continual derealization of nature is leading to
a scientific deterritorializion of the world itself. Our bodies, from
the cellular, to the subcellular, to the molecular level, are in
effect becoming crystalline. Researchers at IBM can manipulate single
atoms, various nanotechnology research teams have successfully bonded
gold with DNA (an accomplishment that may lead to new forms of
electrical conduction). Medical surgeons routinely wield
remote-control scalpels and perform telepresence operations. When the
Human Genome Project is completed in a decade or so, the genetic
foundations of any biological question will be significantly decoded.
Consequently, it has become increasingly impossible in our
surveillance-ridden society to even get lost.
These are some of the misfortunes (or little miracles) of the present
age. They exist as parameters of artifice, as mass dissolves into
data in the boundless age of the MetaMillennium (TM).
Television and computer screens have become my replacement windows on
the worlds. Their flickering visions do not offer me apertures of
transcendence, or even escape; as ultimately, I'm led back to my
monstrous and ever hyperaccelerating self, which floats in a digital
ouroboros as information traveling at the speed of light devours
itself as quickly as it can be produced. The post capitalist-schizo
is an accumulating production machine that whirls in the 'real-time'
digital casino of international exchange rates and profit margins. By
adding I have eradicated function, as I participate in constructing a
veritable electroMERZ. Stop in at the drive-thru McDonald's on the
way to the Seremetyevo Airport 1, on the way to...
2:34:23 AM. I'm witness to some of the symptomatic signs of an
adrenaline rush as I give up the ghost, as virtual rigor mortis kicks
in, and digital ectoplasm spews from my carpal tunnel-ridden
MetaModernity (TM) and the death of the future began in Hiroshima, on
August 6, 1945, at exactly 8:15 in the morning. In a flash the
temperature of the air reached 3,000-4,000 degrees Celsius. The
shadows of the living were rayographed onto the surface of the earth
by heat rays hotter than anything previously before imagined. The
sheer incomprehensibility of this massive obliteration of human life
set the hive mind reeling to this day. To move on from the psychic
paralysis of that catastrophe is now the ultimate goal of any
'user-friendly' condition, post - 'Little Boy' blues.
Ground Control To Major Tom
When the first images of Earth taken by American astronauts were fed
back to us, that vivid image of our planet as a lonely orb floating
in the vastness of space reinforced our growing perception of human
beings as a single distinct race. It gave us a narcissistic vision of
wholeness and reinforced our belief in the utopian expansiveness of
unlimited technological progress. Man on the moon: the looking glass
effect. It was mankind's first global out-of-body experience. Reality
itself was pulled inside out. It was a staggering accomplishment.
This 'impossible event' coincided with tremendous social upheavals
which were taking place back on spaceship earth: the drug and sexual
revolutions, the Women's liberation movement, race riots in San
Francisco and Detroit, student marches in Europe and the United
States, the Vietnam War, and so forth. It was a time of swift and
overwhelming change as chthonic fissures rippled through every strata
Then, the utopian dreams of the Space Age collapsed in a mere 73
seconds, when the Challenger crew plummeted to their death in a fiery
crash, as millions of school children looked on in disbelief. This
stillborn disillusionment with 'getting off' spaceship earth has
forced us to rechannel our desires. It is no longer possible to blast
our problems into deep space.
But we our taking them into cyberspace. At AlphaWorld, one of the
first virtual VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) communities,
settlers have already formed the first gang, called The Order, a name
taken from the neo-Nazi group in the race-war novel The Turner
Diaries. "Its members have discovered how to use aliases on line and
then, using other people's names, have cursed and taunted some
settlers. Russ Freelander, who is one of the few AlphaWorld settlers
with the power to destroy structures, has occasionally gone out to
The Order's headquarters at coordinates 666 North, 0 West to erase
profanity. The Order has fought back by erecting a castle and a wall
on which they post insults against Freelander and demands for freedom
It is no longer enough to venture into cyberspace with your own
personality. You need to cultivate multiple you's, viable doubles and
Developing An On-line Personality:
Have you ever wanted to develop an on-line personality? This seminar
will give you the opportunity to take an approach for creating a
character for the internet. You will learn how to successfully
promote your character and what's believable or not. Topics include:
historical overview, what is an on-line personality, what makes for a
good on-line personality and for believable characters. 10
[Cut to a slow-motion panning shot of some Germans selling chunks of
the Berlin wall to Japanese tourists.] The Wall is gone, though its
presence, its trace, still remains. Ask any German.
Use It Or Lose It: If Madonna Calls Tell Her I'm Not Home
A billion-dollar fitness industry now caters to our alienation and
obsession with inertness and the art of staying in place:
Stairmasters, treadmills, bicycling machines, rowing machines. As
electrons replace the physical need for 'being there', and our bodies
are required for less and less manual labor, it becomes readily
apparent that the trend in our culture toward excessive exercise is
not merely a passing fad. We unconsciously intuit the need to keep
our bodies strong. As the strangle-hold of invisible technologies
take grip, we are developing an even more obsessive appetite for
sculpting and morphing our physical selves. Not just through exercise
but through the indiscriminate use of plastic surgery as well.
Perhaps it's not strictly narcissism at work, but a latent drive in
the species to avoid utter extinction, a denial of our own mortality.
[I leave my home seduced by the horizon of the distant, but my body
accelerates into obsolescence. I have no place - or - that place is
everywhere. This absence of place has created binary encoded spaces
of death. Not frozen, but seamlessly enfolded. An erosion of
trajectories, like an ancient wound. Yet I feel no pain. I draw a
thousand lines across the void.]
The Great Mother
The anarchic Internet, a bastion of antiquated cold-war era
technology, has become our collective exo-nervous system, the perfect
host organism as 'the network itself has become the computer', the
'Great Mother', capable of storing all the knowledge and information
we can throw at it. It will eventually wrap spaceship earth like a
vast immeasurable library of the absurd. A Dewey decimal system based
on the binary reduction of 0's and 1's. "If you could only see what
I've seen with your eyes." 11 We generate content now just to watch
it die. We get off on the meta-morte in the sidereal space of the
chronically fake, amid the illusion of community.
William Gibson, the writer who coined the term 'cyberspace', recently
wrote: "Post-industrial creatures of an information economy, we
increasingly sense that accessing media is what we do. We have become
terminally self-conscious. There is no such thing as simple
entertainment. We watch ourselves watching Beavis and Butt-head, who
are watching rock video's." 12
It should come as no surprise, that as the dawn of the MetaMillennium
(TM) nears, "the more fluently we manage to reproduce ourselves, and
our worlds, the more fleeting seems our embrace"? 13 Meta-scenes...
duplicates of duplicates ad infinitum...we already don't really see,
we scan, as the vortex-like datamesh delivers a mirage of
information-as-knowledge to our retinas at warp speed.
Gimme A Virtual Jesus
In the summer of 1995, the first retail store selling VR equipment
opened its doors in Indianapolis. Virtually Yours is wedged between a
pizza parlor and a laundromat in a small shopping center on the
city's northeast outskirts. A businessman who stumbled upon the store
when he and his son went out for pizza, saw the potential for
education...he asked Virtually Yours to supply expertise and equipment
to Sunship Ministries as a marketing tool for getting developing
countries to welcome them. "[We] could let people interact with a
Holographic VR and haptic telepresence environments emerge as the
inevitable extension of our screen driven selves. No longer content
to experience the idea of nothingness, we now want to inhabit it,
like a luminous presence spiraling out of thin air. In our
increasingly artificial cocoons, we acclimate to the Hertzian light
that replaces natural daylight. Our newly founded digital reflection
is not merely a limit, but rather a rite of passage, a transition
into what Hakim Bey has jokingly called "a temporary autonomous
zone", as we shift seamlessly between 'the real' and ever more
illusionary worlds. We suffer from a boundary loss that is
screen-like by nature, amorphous, and hangs silently on a binary code
that sublimely replicates death, slow death delivered by 0's and 1's
on the Home Shopping Network simulator channel.
The gratifications and excitement of upward mobility threaten to
abandoned us to the unraveling inner spaces of our own psychic
rootlessness. Our 'culture of bits' threatens to absorb the space
where we take place. And this disappearance for all intents and
purposes, has already occured.
Technology has always evoked new representations of reality. Paul
Virilio has asserted that the creation of virtual images is a crash
site: "Cyberspace is an accident of the real. Virtual reality is the
accident of reality itself...It no longer occurs in matter, but in
light or in images...thus, the accident is in light, not in matter.
The creation of a virtual image is a form of accident. This explains
why virtual reality is a cosmic accident. It's the accident of the
Perversely, the advent of the virtual, or "the accident of the real",
comes just in time to prop up our sagging belief systems. Culturally
imbedded protocols are endlessly being recycled
with the hope that some overlooked freak mutation will somehow catch
fire again. Elvis meets __, meets __.
Perhaps it is truly a nostalgia for the future, remotely past and
ripley aged, that we so desperately yearn for. Because at present,
there is simply no room for the once imagined future to take place.
Even Disney World, former home to imageering the future, has thrown
in the futurist towel. "The new Tomorrowland begins with Jules Verne
and ends with Buck Rogers."16 You can bet that Disney would have a
hard time pitching a diorama with mom and mom and their cloned kids.
So even at Tomorrowland, the future has sadly turned back in on
itself-a kind of tomorrow yesterday approach is being developed. It
is "a reflection of the ennui that many Americans, at century's end,
feel about the chips and bits in which they are immersed." 17
To this effect, VR offers up a lightscape, a mirror thrust up through
our television screens, enabling a vision quest for our waking
discontents and its burden of broken dreams. Telepresence and
remote-sensing technologies allow us to become at once actors and
spectators, the Janus face, and the double-crossed body.
What is the surround sound of one astral hand clapping in the
frenzied aisles of consumerism? This is the tumultuous condition: the
equivocal stare of chance upon transferring your consciousness to the
Metaphoric Vessels And The Topologies Of Indifference: Adjust To New
Parameters And Construct Directly
Architecture is now invisible. The interface is the architecture,
suspended between silence and the virtual, an electronic inscription
of our extended and blurred bodies, incised onto an event horizon of
no escape. An epoch tossed into the black hole of the ether. The body
long since forgotten dissolves into oblivion. A concentration of pure
energy, an accumulation of sheer intentionality. Forever a gaze which
is beyond identity, beyond body - that offers itself up as pure
acceleration. Dilated organs without bodies perhaps, not bodies
without organs. The distributed home bo(d)y.
Architecture must inevitably hemorrhage in this mix. It must flow out
in other directions. New spatial aggregates will require multiple
escape routes. A single door for entering and exiting will no longer
suffice. "Riemannian spaces...amorphous collection of pieces that are
juxtaposed but not attached to each other." 18 Pure patchwork with
an infinite porosity of structure, like a sponge.
Formerly, architecture hoarded forms by creating variations of
closure. Freezing the mobility of relations of the in-between by
storing an energy that now can only circulate. Attempting to capture
some sort of spatio temporal event within a formal framework, an
anthropomorphic diagram, an envelope of recursive boundaries mirrors
our conception of the cosmos, and our place within it.
The very development of architectural topologies can be likened to
the spread of an image virus, memes (mime) that tend to explode out
of an emergent set of embedded and acceptable codes or systems. In
other words, they emerge out of a collectivist soup and are
disseminated through various professional journals, style magazines
and coffee table books. The mark of a star architect today is judged
more by the loud thump their new book makes when it hits the boardroom
table, then by their contributions to the betterment of society.
Doesn't the product of architecture in our culture exist as yet
another form of corporate branding, like the latest pair of Nike's
stitched up in Indonesia? Architectural evolution seems to have no
foresight, it gropes from one path of dependence to the next.
Architecture moves with the velocity of a slug through its own waste
matter. Will we soon have a trip hop architecture, an
illbient-itecture, a gangsta-tecture, ad infinitum?
3:15:11 AM. The (phant_ms) of architecture haunt me, like an
uninterrupted sequence of points projected onto the surface of some
warped parabola. With no beginning and no end, a moebius strip which
cannabilizes itself. An immutable feedback with a single razor-sharp
edge. Spatial organizations which are all links and no thresholds. A
space that aspires to death, yet anticipates nothing, constantly
retreating. A space that is always becoming the paradoxical other,
constantly superimposing itself on the whole, an organization that
craves totality like a virus or a burst of lightening.
As the developmental logics of contemporary architecture are being
conceived increasingly more for the display of audiovisual
information than for the framed location of real bodies, a mode of
built environments, as overwhelming as the datameshes that they seek
to ground, is now being jettisoned globally.
What then is the fate which awaits architecture when it no longer
requires a roof, structure, walls, windows, or staircases, and
becomes merely a screen? When the reversal, doubling, or unfolding of
an interior for an exterior takes place? When the former reflexive
relationships between exterior and interior disclosures become
severed, spaces where gravity itself has been abruptly dislocated,
vast infinitely morphing fields/screens of the convulsive marvelous,
as we point and click our way through spatial membranes like lab rats
in an infinite hyper-Pavlovian maze?
Information as decoration? Karrie Jacobs has ironically observed:
"Some would argue that screens, whether they show video images or
computer data, are appearing on building walls because they dispense
information. I suspect the screens (and their cousins, the news
zippers) proliferate because they represent the look of
information...TV sets adorn buildings all over town, and still there's
nothing to watch".19
We are witness to the emergence of architecture and its 'chromed'
double, an architecture that casts no shadows. An electro-shadowless
architecture made by vampires for vampires, forever condemned to live
a soulless immortality in front of the flickering phosphorescent glow
of computer terminals as cities crumble around them. An architecture
without the presence of angels in the global space of temporalized
It is perhaps at this interval; where the sublimity of nature has
been overwhelmed by the infinity of information, where information
itself has become elevated to a new form of religion, that new kinds
of spatial figures will begin to take into account tectonic
strategies, whereby structures are conceived in a more profound way
than mere collage, or the manipulation of historical fragments. Bed
becomes chair becomes table becomes wall becomes room becomes
building becomes infrastructure. Continuous like film, an
architecture based on duration and flow, from the virtual to the
actual, and from the actual to the virtual. Of projected and
transmitted surfaces within surfaces-kernals within kernals that
forever unravel and surprise. An approach to building and
conceptualizing space that is in tandem to the hyperlink, metaballs,
blobs, and your latest plug-in. I suggest exploring a geometry of the
uncanny surface, of polymorphous porosity, of the topological
configuration of the in-between. Take a bite out of time, push the
simultaneous and the porous. Analog method-students take note:
fabricate your next architectural model in poured latex (as a
negative), and hang it out to dry. Stick your arm deep down into the
malignancy of the thing-like those psychic surgeons in Manila, and
pull it inside out like a sock. Pull the floors through the roof, the
walls through the light apertures. Now start taking pictures of your
ambitious creation from various angles, plans, elevations, etc. Have
the photographs developed. Stack them neatly on top of one another.
Next, slice an arch through them from one edge to the other. Place
the sectioned images in sequence, in order of the directional cut.
You now have a nice working diagram of simultaneity. Begin
constructing your program from this new picture of space-time.
Alternatively, and by contrast, new digital methods for creating and
programming space will be undoubtedly developed based upon advances
in AI (artifical intelligence) research, such as neural net computers
similar to the kind already in place at Nasa's Langley Research
Center. Neural-nets consist of many control systems, or nodes,
interconnected like neurons in the brain. Each node assigns a weight,
or value, to inputs from the other nodes. By changing values, the
neural net can change the way it responds. The Nasa project, being
designed with the collaboration of Lockheed Martin and the
Mississippi State University, is for the "Waverider" Mach 5 airplane.
This prototype incorporates a radical solution - the plane can teach
itself to fly.
This same sort of thinking it seems will be used to generate
provocative new forms. Forms which will not rely upon the random
ego-centric mutterings and musings of the designer. Building designs
will in fact 'self-assemble'. You program in the variables (history,
program, site, budget, style, etc.), render it in MetaSpace, and
bingo! A resin model pops out like a piece of toast from a STL
(Stereo Lithography) machine - you've got a slick little project. You
could even program in a certain amount of indeterminacy, chaos, or
Euler characteristics, if that's your trip, and push the topological
envelope. Go ahead, make a name for yourself, you futurist!
1. Andrew Pollack, "Tiny Toyota Utilizes New Advances In
Micro-machine Technology." New York Times. 18 November 1996.
2. Fernand Braudel, A History of Civilizations, trans. Richard
Mayne. New York: Penguin Books,1995, p.9.
3. Rayco Securities website.
4. State of Illinois website.
5. Veritel Corp's speaker identification system.
6. Cornell Science website.
For general information on Nanotechnology, see Nanothinc.
7. Hakim Bey, T.A.Z.: The Temporary Autonomous Zone, Ontological
Anarchy, Poetic Terrorism. New York: Autonomedia, 1991.
8. Repetitive Strain Injury has emerged as the leading occupational
injury in America, accounting for well over 300,000 new cases each
year, according to the Bureau of Labor Statisitics.
9. "Evolution of Virtual Universe Echos Reality, Warts and All,"
New York Times, 7 February 1996.
10. From Pratt Institutes fall catalog. New York: 1997, p.19.
11. Dialogue from the film Strange Days.
12. William Gibson, "The Net is a Waste of Time," New York Times
Magazine, 14 July 1996, 31.
13. Hillel Schwartz, The Culture of the Copy: Striking Likenesses,
Unreasonable Facsimiles. New York: Zone Books, 1996, p.20.
14. Barnaby J Feder, "Selling Virtual Reality, in Indiana," New York
Times, 7 August 1995.
15. Louise Wilson, "Cyberwar, God and Television: Interview with Paul
Virilio," CTHEORY, 1995.
16. Seth Schiesel, "Once-Visionary Disney Calls the Future a Thing of
the Past," 23 February 1997.
18. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus, trans.
Brian Massumi (Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1987)
19. Karrie Jacobs. "Video Killed the Gargoyle," New York Magazine,
17 February, 1997: p. 24-27.
John Beckmann is a practicing architect and writer who lives in New
York. He is the editor of The Virtual Dimension, New York:
Princeton Architectural Press, 1998.
© CTheory. All Rights Reserved